Pandemic Immune Support for Mothers: 14 Medicinal Mushrooms That Are Safe To Take While Pregnant And Breastfeeding
The importance of supporting our overall immune health has really been highlighted during the past two years of the pandemic. Unfortunately, many of the most familiar immune supplements come with controversy and caution while pregnant and breastfeeding.
But immune health doesn’t stop being a priority just because you got pregnant! If anything, a strong and balanced immune system is even more important! There’s evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to viral infections including COVID-19 and that there can be negative effects on the developing baby. Taking medicinal mushrooms is a safe and effective way to support the immune system through pregnancy and beyond.
Medicinal mushrooms (and edible mushrooms) all contain polysaccharides (most importantly beta-glucans)that strengthen the immune system. You’ll also see that all the mushrooms on this list have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, each mushroom has extra medicinal benefits (see below).
We formulated Mother’s Immunity to have small doses of each of the following 14 mushrooms which work synergistically to improve immune health and inflammation.
Some of these mushrooms are even being considered as potential treatments for COVID-19, but the research is still pending.
- Maitake aka Hen-of-the-woods aka Signorina (Grifola frondosa): Maitake mushrooms are considered both edible and medicinal mushrooms and are eaten all over the world. In addition to their benefits for immune health, they also help with: healthy stress response, blood sugar control, and weight management.
- Reishi aka Lingzhi (Ganoderma spp.): Reishi mushrooms are one of the most revitalizing mushrooms on this whole list. They are traditionally known as medicine that supports a long and healthy life by strengthening the mind, body, and spirit. Research shows that in addition to their benefits for the immune system, they also protect the nervous system from damage, help with blood sugar control, and improve antioxidant status in the body.
- Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor aka. Coriolus versicolor): Turkey tail mushrooms are known mostly for their immune-enhancing properties. They are strongly antioxidant and also support gut health by acting as an effective prebiotic.
- Chaga (Inonotus obliquus): Chaga mushrooms were traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal diseases- this may be due to their anti-parasitic effects. They also have positive effects on blood sugar and cholesterol. In addition, they have antioxidant and antitumor properties. Importantly in 2022, chaga has anti-viral properties and is being investigated as a potential treatment for COVID-19.
- Cordyceps (Cordyceps spp.): Cordyceps is a prized mushroom in Traditional Chinese Medicine and has also attracted a lot of research in recent years. A list of its virtues includes: immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-aging, antitumor, antiarthritic, antioxidant, and more. It might improve energy and libido. Cordyceps is another mushroom with therapeutic potential against COVID-19 and you may hear more about it in the future.
- Shiitake (Lentinula edodes): Shiitake is a popular edible mushroom that is also used as a medicine in many parts of Asia. This mushroom is known mostly for its immune-enhancing benefits and is prized as a longevity tonic. Researchers have highlighted Shiitake’s potential as a COVID-19 treatment, but we’re still awaiting clinical trials.
- Lion’s Mane (Hericium erinaceus): Lion’s Mane is well known in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is a popular edible and medicinal mushroom that is getting a lot of attention for its effects on mental health. Lion’s Mane can be used to treat anxiety, depression, and fatigue. It’s also protective of the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system.
- Poria Cocos aka. Fu ling (Wolfiporia extensa): Poria is one of the most commonly prescribed remedies in Traditional Chinese medicine. It is strongly immunomodulating and is used to treat digestive problems, asthma, eczema, and food allergies, possibly due to its ability to restore the digestive tract and the gut-brain connection.
- Tinder Conk (Fomes fomentarius): Tinder conk has been used as food, medicine, and as tinder in smoke rituals as far back as 5000 years! Its main effects are antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor.
- Cogumelo de sol aka. Himematsutake aka Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei): Royal sun mushroom is an edible mushroom that has lately been getting more attention as a functional food and/or medicine for the immune system. As with the other mushrooms on this list, royal sun mushroom is immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer.
- Mesima (Phellinus linteus ): Mesima is best known for its immune balancing properties and has been investigated as a possible eczema treatment. Like the other mushrooms, it is also anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In addition, it is antidiabetic and a protector of the liver and nervous system.
- Tremella (Tremella spp.): Tremella is another major immunomodulator that may also be a potent protector and healer of the nervous system. Its ability to treat spinal cord injury is currently being researched. It is well known in Traditional Chinese medicine, and like the other mushrooms on this list, is also anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.
- Velvet foot aka enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes): You may have seen these thin white mushrooms in the grocery store. Like most mushrooms, they are helpful for the immune system and enoki mushrooms may even be helpful in treating RSV (though more research is needed).
- Zhu ling (Polyporus umbellatus): Zhu ling is another well-known mushroom in Traditional Chinese medicine that primarily treats the kidneys and acts as a diuretic. It also strengthens the immune system, acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, and protects against cancer.
The medicinal mushrooms listed here all contain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. Each mushroom is also unique and depending on what your goals are, different mushrooms may be chosen. Together, these 14 mushrooms are believed to have approximately 125 therapeutic effects and only some of them are listed here.
Together, these 14 mushrooms are believed to have approximately 125 therapeutic effects and only some of them are listed here.
Mother’s Immunity contains a synergistic blend of these mushrooms designed to nourish and protect mothers’ immunity at all ages and stages. Together these provide a good dose of nutrients and beta glucans to support and balance the immune system.
Safety Considerations With Medicinal Mushrooms During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding:
Always speak with your personal healthcare provider before taking any supplements, especially while pregnant or breastfeeding. Medicinal mushrooms are considered safe in pregnancy because most are functional foods that have been consumed during pregnancy by many cultures throughout the world. However, clinical studies demonstrating their safety are lacking.
Avoid foraged mushrooms until you’re no longer pregnant or breastfeeding. Magic mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and poisonous mushrooms should all be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding as well.
Some people who are allergic or sensitive to molds or yeasts don’t tolerate medicinal mushrooms well.
Some of these mushrooms can be used to lower blood sugar, so caution should be used with anti-diabetic medications.
Some of these mushrooms have mild blood-thinning effects, so caution should be used with blood thinners. It is also recommended to stop taking certain mushrooms 2 weeks before surgery.
Wu JY, Siu KC, Geng P. Bioactive Ingredients and Medicinal Values of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Foods. 2021 Jan 5;10(1):95. doi: 10.3390/foods10010095. PMID: 33466429; PMCID: PMC7824844.
Mallard B, Leach DN, Wohlmuth H, Tiralongo J. Synergistic immuno-modulatory activity in human macrophages of a medicinal mushroom formulation consisting of Reishi, Shiitake and Maitake. PLoS One. 2019 Nov 7;14(11):e0224740. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224740. PMID: 31697749; PMCID: PMC6837746.
De Giani A, Bovio F, Forcella ME, Lasagni M, Fusi P, Di Gennaro P. Prebiotic Effect of Maitake Extract on a Probiotic Consortium and Its Action after Microbial Fermentation on Colorectal Cell Lines. Foods. 2021 Oct 21;10(11):2536. doi: 10.3390/foods10112536. PMID: 34828817; PMCID: PMC8617840.
Seweryn E, Ziała A, Gamian A. Health-Promoting of Polysaccharides Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum. Nutrients. 2021 Aug 7;13(8):2725. doi: 10.3390/nu13082725. PMID: 34444885; PMCID: PMC8400705.
Zhao S, Gao Q, Rong C, Wang S, Zhao Z, Liu Y, Xu J. Immunomodulatory Effects of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms and Their Bioactive Immunoregulatory Products. J Fungi (Basel). 2020 Nov 8;6(4):269. doi: 10.3390/jof6040269. PMID: 33171663; PMCID: PMC7712035.
Rahman MA, Rahman MS, Bashir NMB, Mia R, Hossain A, Saha SK, Kakon AJ, Sarker NC. Rationalization of Mushroom-Based Preventive and Therapeutic Approaches to COVID-19: Review. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2021;23(5):1-11. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038285. PMID: 34347990. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34347990/
Tangen JM, Holien T, Mirlashari MR, Misund K, Hetland G. Cytotoxic Effect on Human Myeloma Cells and Leukemic Cells by the Agaricus blazei Murill Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2059825. doi: 10.1155/2017/2059825. Epub 2017 Nov 7. PMID: 29238712; PMCID: PMC5697368.
Firenzuoli F, Gori L, Lombardo G. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Mar;5(1):3-15. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem007. PMID: 18317543; PMCID: PMC2249742.
Jeong YK, Oh JY, Yoo JK, Lim SH, Kim EH. The Biofunctional Effects of Mesima as a Radiosensitizer for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 29;21(3):871. doi: 10.3390/ijms21030871. PMID: 32013255; PMCID: PMC7036851.
Park KJ, Lee SY, Kim HS, Yamazaki M, Chiba K, Ha HC. The Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Effects of Tremella fuciformis in PC12h Cells. Mycobiology. 2007 Mar;35(1):11-5. doi: 10.4489/MYCO.2007.35.1.011. Epub 2007 Mar 31. PMID: 24015061; PMCID: PMC3763079.
Yang D, Liu Y, Zhang L. Tremella polysaccharide: The molecular mechanisms of its drug action. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2019;163:383-421. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2019.03.002. Epub 2019 Apr 1. PMID: 31030755.
Ma X, Yang M, He Y, Zhai C, Li C. A review on the production, structure, bioactivities and applications of Tremella polysaccharides. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211000541. doi: 10.1177/20587384211000541. PMID: 33858263; PMCID: PMC8172338.
Shahzad F, Anderson D, Najafzadeh M. The Antiviral, Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Natural Medicinal Herbs and Mushrooms and SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Nutrients. 2020 Aug 25;12(9):2573. doi: 10.3390/nu12092573. PMID: 32854262; PMCID: PMC7551890.
Chun S, Gopal J, Muthu M. Antioxidant Activity of Mushroom Extracts/Polysaccharides-Their Antiviral Properties and Plausible AntiCOVID-19 Properties. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Nov 26;10(12):1899. doi: 10.3390/antiox10121899. PMID: 34943001; PMCID: PMC8750169.
Mirończuk-Chodakowska I, Kujawowicz K, Witkowska AM. Beta-Glucans from Fungi: Biological and Health-Promoting Potential in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Nutrients. 2021 Nov 6;13(11):3960. doi: 10.3390/nu13113960. PMID: 34836215; PMCID: PMC8623785.
van Steenwijk HP, Bast A, de Boer A. Immunomodulating Effects of Fungal Beta-Glucans: From Traditional Use to Medicine. Nutrients. 2021 Apr 17;13(4):1333. doi: 10.3390/nu13041333. PMID: 33920583; PMCID: PMC8072893.
Liu J, Yang F, Cheng M, Zhang Y. Spinal cord injury can be relieved by the polysaccharides of Tricholoma matsutake by promoting axon regeneration and reducing neuroinflammation. Neuroreport. 2020 Oct 7;31(14):1024-1029. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001514. PMID: 32833882; PMCID: PMC7467154.
Wang X, Lin Z. Immunomodulating Effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) and Possible Mechanism. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1182:1-37. doi: 10.1007/978-981-32-9421-9_1. PMID: 31777013.
Jiang L, Zhang G, Li Y, Shi G, Li M. Potential Application of Plant-Based Functional Foods in the Development of Immune Boosters. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 20;12:637782. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.637782. PMID: 33959009; PMCID: PMC8096308.
Cör D, Knez Ž, Knez Hrnčič M. Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review. Molecules. 2018 Mar 13;23(3):649. doi: 10.3390/molecules23030649. PMID: 29534044; PMCID: PMC6017764.
Benson KF, Stamets P, Davis R, Nally R, Taylor A, Slater S, Jensen GS. The mycelium of the Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail) mushroom and its fermented substrate each show potent and complementary immune activating properties in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Dec 2;19(1):342. doi: 10.1186/s12906-019-2681-7. PMID: 31791317; PMCID: PMC6889544.
Saleh MH, Rashedi I, Keating A. Immunomodulatory Properties of Coriolus versicolor: The Role of Polysaccharopeptide. Front Immunol. 2017 Sep 6;8:1087. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01087. PMID: 28932226; PMCID: PMC5592279.
Teplyakova TV, Ilyicheva TN, Kosogova TA, Wasser SP. Medicinal Mushrooms against Influenza Viruses. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2021;23(2):1-11. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020037460. PMID: 33639077.
Lu Y, Jia Y, Xue Z, Li N, Liu J, Chen H. Recent Developments in Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structural Characteristics, Biological Activities and Application. Polymers (Basel). 2021 Apr 29;13(9):1441. doi: 10.3390/polym13091441. PMID: 33947037; PMCID: PMC8124789.
Szychowski KA, Skóra B, Pomianek T, Gmiński J. Inonotus obliquus – from folk medicine to clinical use. J Tradit Complement Med. 2020 Aug 22;11(4):293-302. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.08.003. PMID: 34195023; PMCID: PMC8240111.
Eid JI, Das B, Al-Tuwaijri MM, Basal WT. Targeting SARS-CoV-2 with Chaga mushroom: An in silico study toward developing a natural antiviral compound. Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Oct 20;9(12):6513-6523. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2576. PMID: 34900242; PMCID: PMC8645752.
Olatunji OJ, Tang J, Tola A, Auberon F, Oluwaniyi O, Ouyang Z. The genus Cordyceps: An extensive review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Fitoterapia. 2018 Sep;129:293-316. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.05.010. Epub 2018 May 24. PMID: 29775778.
Ashraf SA, Elkhalifa AEO, Siddiqui AJ, Patel M, Awadelkareem AM, Snoussi M, Ashraf MS, Adnan M, Hadi S. Cordycepin for Health and Wellbeing: A Potent Bioactive Metabolite of an Entomopathogenic Cordyceps Medicinal Fungus and Its Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Potential. Molecules. 2020 Jun 12;25(12):2735. doi: 10.3390/molecules25122735. PMID: 32545666; PMCID: PMC7356751.
Chen B, Sun Y, Luo F, Wang C. Bioactive Metabolites and Potential Mycotoxins Produced by Cordyceps Fungi: A Review of Safety. Toxins (Basel). 2020 Jun 19;12(6):410. doi: 10.3390/toxins12060410. PMID: 32575649; PMCID: PMC7354514.
Verma AK. Cordycepin: a bioactive metabolite of Cordyceps militaris and polyadenylation inhibitor with therapeutic potential against COVID-19. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020 Nov 23:1-8. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1850352. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33225826; PMCID: PMC7754931.
Murphy EJ, Masterson C, Rezoagli E, O’Toole D, Major I, Stack GD, Lynch M, Laffey JG, Rowan NJ. β-Glucan extracts from the same edible shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes produce differential in-vitro immunomodulatory and pulmonary cytoprotective effects – Implications for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) immunotherapies. Sci Total Environ. 2020 Aug 25;732:139330. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139330. Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32413619; PMCID: PMC7211630.
Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cavecchia I. Possible therapeutic role of a highly standardized mixture of active compounds derived from cultured Lentinula edodes mycelia (AHCC) in patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2020 Jun;66(2):172-176. doi: 10.23736/S1121-421X.20.02697-5. Epub 2020 Mar 12. PMID: 32162896.
Shin MS, Park HJ, Maeda T, Nishioka H, Fujii H, Kang I. The Effects of AHCC®, a Standardized Extract of Cultured Lentinura edodes Mycelia, on Natural Killer and T Cells in Health and Disease: Reviews on Human and Animal Studies. J Immunol Res. 2019 Dec 20;2019:3758576. doi: 10.1155/2019/3758576. PMID: 31930148; PMCID: PMC6942843.
Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J. Immune-enhancing effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts. Ann Transl Med. 2014 Feb;2(2):14. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.01.05. PMID: 25332990; PMCID: PMC4202470.
Zhu H, Hu M, Wang D, Xu G, Yin X, Liu X, Ding M, Han L. Mixed polysaccharides derived from Shiitake mushroom, Poriacocos, Ginger, and Tangerine peel enhanced protective immune responses in mice induced by inactivated influenza vaccine. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Jun;126:110049. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110049. Epub 2020 Mar 12. PMID: 32172063.
Li TJ, Lee TY, Lo Y, Lee LY, Li IC, Chen CC, Chang FC. Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorate anxiety induced by continuous sleep disturbance in vivo. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 Dec 5;21(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12906-021-03463-3. PMID: 34865649; PMCID: PMC8643634.
Diling C, Xin Y, Chaoqun Z, Jian Y, Xiaocui T, Jun C, Ou S, Yizhen X. Extracts from Hericium erinaceus relieve inflammatory bowel disease by regulating immunity and gut microbiota. Oncotarget. 2017 Sep 6;8(49):85838-85857. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.20689. PMID: 29156761; PMCID: PMC5689651.
Chao CL, Huang HW, Su MH, Lin HC, Wu WM. The Lanostane Triterpenoids in Poria cocos Play Beneficial Roles in Immunoregulatory Activity. Life (Basel). 2021 Feb 1;11(2):111. doi: 10.3390/life11020111. PMID: 33535602; PMCID: PMC7912843.
Chao CL, Wang CJ, Huang HW, Kuo HP, Su MH, Lin HC, Teng CW, Sy LB, Wu WM. Poria cocos Modulates Th1/Th2 Response and Attenuates Airway Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mouse Allergic Asthma Model. Life (Basel). 2021 Apr 21;11(5):372. doi: 10.3390/life11050372. PMID: 33919400; PMCID: PMC8143325.
Tu Y, Luo X, Liu D, Li H, Xia H, Ma C, Zhang D, Yang Y, Pan X, Wang T, Xia Y, Dan H, You P, Ye X. Extracts of Poria cocos improve functional dyspepsia via regulating brain-gut peptides, immunity and repairing of gastrointestinal mucosa. Phytomedicine. 2022 Jan;95:153875. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153875. Epub 2021 Dec 3. PMID: 34911003.
Bae MJ, See HJ, Choi G, Kang CY, Shon DH, Shin HS. Regulatory T Cell Induced by Poria cocos Bark Exert Therapeutic Effects in Murine Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:3472608. doi: 10.1155/2016/3472608. Epub 2016 Jun 29. PMID: 27445434; PMCID: PMC4942653.
Marina Kolundžić, Nađa Đ. Grozdanić, Margarita Dodevska, Marina Milenković, Francesca Sisto, Alessandro Miani, Giampietro Farronato, Tatjana Kundaković,
Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of wild mushroom Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr., Polyporaceae. Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 79, 2016. Pages 110-115. ISSN 0926-6690, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.10.030.
da Silva de Souza AC, Correa VG, Goncalves GA, Soares AA, Bracht A, Peralta RM. Agaricus blazei Bioactive Compounds and their Effects on Human Health: Benefits and Controversies. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(19):2807-2834. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170119093719. PMID: 28103773.
Lima CU, Cordova CO, Nóbrega Ode T, Funghetto SS, Karnikowski MG. Does the Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom have properties that affect the immune system? An integrative review. J Med Food. 2011 Jan-Feb;14(1-2):2-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.0017. Epub 2010 Dec 4. PMID: 21128829.
Wang H, Fu Z, Han C. The Medicinal Values of Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:842619. doi: 10.1155/2013/842619. Epub 2013 Oct 31. PMID: 24288568; PMCID: PMC3833359.
Chen W, Tan H, Liu Q, Zheng X, Zhang H, Liu Y, Xu L. A Review: The Bioactivities and Pharmacological Applications of Phellinus linteus. Molecules. 2019 May 16;24(10):1888. doi: 10.3390/molecules24101888. PMID: 31100959; PMCID: PMC6572527.
Hwang JS, Kwon HK, Kim JE, Rho J, Im SH. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Sep 18;12:159. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-159. PMID: 22988890; PMCID: PMC3479073.
Shin MR, Lee JH, Lee JA, Kim MJ, Park HJ, Park BW, Seo SB, Roh SS. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Phellinus linteus mycelium. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 Oct 26;21(1):269. doi: 10.1186/s12906-021-03441-9. PMID: 34702240; PMCID: PMC8547106.
Yan ZF, Liu NX, Mao XX, Li Y, Li CT. Activation effects of polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae on the T lymphocyte immune function. J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:285421. doi: 10.1155/2014/285421. Epub 2014 Jul 14. PMID: 25133194; PMCID: PMC4122143.
Wu M, Luo X, Xu X, Wei W, Yu M, Jiang N, Ye L, Yang Z, Fei X. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of a polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes. J Tradit Chin Med. 2014 Dec;34(6):733-40. doi: 10.1016/s0254-6272(15)30089-3. PMID: 25618979.
Chang YC, Chow YH, Sun HL, Liu YF, Lee YT, Lue KH, Ko JL. Alleviation of respiratory syncytial virus replication and inflammation by fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-fve from Flammulina velutipes. Antiviral Res. 2014 Oct;110:124-31. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Aug 14. PMID: 25131377. /
Zhao YY. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and quality control of Polyporus umbellatus (Pers.) Fries: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Aug 26;149(1):35-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.031. Epub 2013 Jun 26. PMID: 23811047.
Liu GK, Yang TX, Wang JR. Polysaccharides from Polyporus umbellatus: A review on their extraction, modification, structure, and bioactivities. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Oct 31;189:124-134. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.101. Epub 2021 Aug 19. PMID: 34419536.
Vetvicka V, Vannucci L, Sima P, Richter J. Beta Glucan: Supplement or Drug? From Laboratory to Clinical Trials. Molecules. 2019 Mar 30;24(7):1251. doi: 10.3390/molecules24071251. PMID: 30935016; PMCID: PMC6479769.
Alvandi H, Hatamian-Zarmi A, Ebrahimi Hosseinzadeh B, Mokhtari-Hosseini Z. Optimization of Production Conditions for Bioactive Polysaccharides from Fomes fomentarius and Investigation of Antibacterial and Antitumor Activities. Iran J Med Microbiol. 2020; 14 (6) :596-611 URL: